Low Carbon Shipping & Shipping in Changing Climates

A Research Led Consortium on Sustainable Shipping


SCC Conference 2017

Papers and extended abstracts

Baldi et al (2017) Process integration as a tool for the improvement of cruise ships energy efficiency

Baresic (2017) LNG as a ship fuel- A comparative analysis of the Netherlands and eastern Baltic

Buckingham & Pearson (2017) Fishing Vessel Power & Propulsion Future Evolutions

Canning (2017) Industry views on the scope for carbon emissions reduction

Coraddu et al (2017) A data driven approach for ship energy efficiency and maintenance

Fan et al (2017) Study of real-time fuel consumption model for large bulk carrier

Farrier et al (2017) Opportunities and constraints of electrical energy storage systems in ships

Fearnley & Fowler (2016) Green technology and payback through use of energy recovery

Gibson et al (2017) A novel approach for holistic environmental assessment of ships

Gonzalez et al (2017) Estimation of the Greenhouse effect caused by the Spanish fleet of tugboats

Hansson et al (2017) Assessment of the potential for selected alternative fuels for the maritime sector

Hudson & Galle (2017) Investigation of ship motions and fuel consumption with respect to Charter Party agreements

Lim et al (2017) Understanding approaches to vessel energy efficiency system

Maasch et al (2017) Calm water resistance and self propulsion simulations including cavitation for an LNG carrier in extreme trim conditions

Sekkesaeter (2017) How big data can make shipping greener

Walsh et al (2017) Global trade scenarios some lessons from regional case studies



Baldi - Process integration as a tool for the improvement of cruise ships energy efficiency

Baresic - LNG as a ship fuel- A comparative analysis of the Netherlands and eastern Baltic

Bonello - Energy efficiency retrofit selection in shipping – science or social experiment

Buckingham & Pearson - Fishing Vessel Power & Propulsion Future Evolutions

Canning - Industry views on the scope for carbon emissions reduction

Coraddu et al - A data driven approach for ship energy efficiency and maintenance

Coraddu et al - Hull condition assessment based on real time data

De La Fuente et al - Calculated EEOI improvements using ship energy efficiency methods

De La Fuente et al - Cooling a waste heat recovery system

Fan et al - Study of Real-time Fuel Consumption Model for Large Bulk Carrier

Farrier et al - Opportunities and constraints of electrical ESS in ships

Fearnley & Fowler - Green technology and payback through use of energy recovery

Gibson et al - A novel approach for holistic environmental assessment of ships

Gonazales et al - Estimation of the Greenhouse effect caused by the Spanish fleet of tugboats

Grahn et al - Can electrofuels in combustion engines be cost-competitive to hydrogen in fuel cells

Hanson & Nicholls - Implications of climate change for ports

Hansson et al - Assessment of the potential for selected alternative fuels

Hudson & Galle - Investigation of ship motions and fuel consumption with respect to Charter Party agreements

Johnson - Competition or cooperation A study of R&D collaboration in the Japanese maritime cluster

Lelliot & Bonello - Investigating vessel operation following energy efficiency retrofits

Lim et al - Understanding approaches to vessel energy efficiency system

Maasch et al - Calm water resistance and self propulsion simulations including cavitation for an LNG carrier in extreme trim conditions

Mitchell - Shipping & climate risk

Milligan et al - The potential of non-multilateral regulation to reduce GHG emissions

O'Keefe et al - Deriving vessel operational profiles using network analysis of AIS data

Raucci et al - Future of shipping under 2°C and 4°C

Rehmatulla et al - Investment required for 2degrees pathway

Rojon et al - Shipping GHG policy and potential impacts on maritime transport costs and trade

Romera - Maritime Transport and Climate Change Litigation

Scott et al - Regulating GHG Emissions from Shipping CBDR

Sekkesaeter - How Big Data can make shipping greener

Traut et al - The future demand for shipping in changing climates

Turan et al - Assessing the true performance of ships fitted with flettner rotors

Vigar - Financing Sustainable Shipping SAYS experience

Walsh et al - Trade Scenarios lessons from regional case studies

Yumashev - Towards a Balanced View of Arctic Shipping


SCC Conference 2016

Aulinger (2016) A pollutant emission model for ships and its application in air quality modelling

Bonello & Smith (2016) Estimating ship performance following energy efficiency interventions using in-service data

Bochetti et al. (2016) CO2 emission monitoring and fault-detection based on real navigation data

Buckingham (2916) Geared Electric Propulsion

Calleya (2016) Designing future ships and marine systems for future operating conditions with a low Carbon Intensity

Cui et al. (2016) Voyage Optimisation towards Energy Efficient Ship Operations

Gibson et al. (2016) Novel approach for holistic environmental assessment of ships

Hansson et al. (2016) The potential role of electrofuels as marine fuel: a cost-effective option for the future shipping sector?

Howett, Turan & Day (2016) WASPP: Wind Assisted Ship Performance Prediction

Kim, Turan & Incecik (2016) Numerical Simulations on Ship Added Resistance in Waves

Lim, Pazouki & Murphy (2016) Systematic Efficient Ship Energy Audit and Data Unification

Mander et al. (2016) How may climate change mitigation and adaptation impact on production of key commodities, and how may this influence trade?

Mizythras et al. (2016) Sensitivity analysis on the prediction of maximum permitted wave height

Nikolopoulos & Boulougouris (2016) A holistic methodology for the driven simulation optimisation of the design large bulk carriers under uncertainty

Oihane, Basurko & Quincoces (2016) Fuel consumption monitoring in fishing vessels and its potential for different stakeholders

Rehmatulla et al. (2016) Investigating the energy efficiency gap in shipping

Schuitmaker (2016) Evolution of Global Maritime Freight Energy Demand and CO2 Emissions: A BAU and 2DS Scenario

Silberschmidt et al. (2016) SilverstreamTM System –Air Lubrication Performance Verification and Design Development

Traut et al. (2016) Report from the lookout – understanding climate change impacts on shipping

Kosmas & Acciaro (2016) Bunker levy schemes and their impact on the competitiveness of short sea shipping

Walsh et al. (2016) Comparing the lifecycle emissions of marine fuels

Wu & Bucknall (2016) Power Marine Propulsion Using Battery Power

Zaman et al. (2016) Utilising real-time ship data to save fuel consumption and reduce carbon emission


SCC Conference 2015

Agnolucci et al. (2015) Shipping demand scenarios using estimated elasticities

Andersson & Brynolf (2015) Marine fuel alternatives for a low carbon future – Market influence on pathways selected

Allwright & Maclaine (2015) Commercial wind propulsion solutions: Putting the 'sail' back in sailing

Attah & Bucknall (2015) Energy use onboard LNG DFDE ships

Ayne (2015) Energy efficiency via engine improvements: A review of dual fuel engine development

Balsamo et al. (2015) Carbon dioxide capture with potassium carbonate for naval applications

Banks & Armstrong (2015) Integrated approach to vessel energy efficiency

Banks et al. (2015) Operational performance degradation of marine diesel engines

Bellolio, Lemort & Rigo (2015) Organic rankine cycle systems for waste heat recovery in marine applications

Besikci, Arslan & Turan (2015) Barriers to ship energy efficiency: Prioritisation using the analytic hierarchy process

Daskalakis, Chatzinikolaou & Ventikos (2015) Platform for assessing ship emissions from a life cycle perspective

Demirel et al. (2015) Experimental determination of the roughness functions of marine coatings

Dikis et al. (2015) Increasing ship machinery energy efficiency by dynamic condition monitoring maintenance

Gilbert, Wilson & Walsh (2015) Ship = CE2: Revisited

Haji et al. (2015) Policy implications of meeting the 2°C climate target

Haji et al. (2015) Exploring the sectoral level impacts and absolute emission changes of using alternative fuels in international shipping

Howett et al. (2015) The use of wind assist technology on two contrasting route case studies

Hanson & Nicholls (2015) Planning ports for changing mean and extreme water levels

Kesieme, Murphy & Pazouki (2015) U3 life cycle assessment of upstream pathways towards environmentally effective biofuels for shipping

Kellett et al. (2015) Investigating the roughness effect of biofouling on propeller performance

Kosmas & Acciaro (2015) Bunker levy schemes for GHG emission reduction in international shipping

Kurt, Boulougouris & Turan (2015) An AHP decision support model for the hub port choice of the shipping liners on the Mediterranean region

Koroglu & Sogut (2015) Advanced exergy analysis of a marine diesel engine waste heat recovery system

Lu et al. (2015) Speed management for energy efficient shipping

Leites (2015) Fuel cell systems for seagoing ships

Livanos et al. (2015) Economic and environmental evaluation of an open-type ferry

Lindstad (2015) Hydrogen the next maritime fuel

McCracken & Buckingham (2015) The benefits of ship waste heat recovery using a supercritical organic rankine cycle

Maasch, Turan & Khorasanchi (2015) Unsteady ranse and detached-eddy simulations of cavitating flow

Mitchell & Rehmatulla (2015) Dead in the water: An analysis of industry practices and perceptions on vessel efficiency and stranded assets

Michala, Lazakis & Theotokatos (2015) Predictive maintenance decision support system for enhanced energy efficiency of ship machinery

Mizzi et al. (2015) Issues with energy saving devices and the way forward

Raptodimos et al. (2015) Defining ship structural & machinery onboard measurement campaign for energy efficient operations

Rehmatulla et al. (2015) The diffusion of energy efficiency technologies in shipping

Raucci et al. (2015) Hydrogen on board ship: A first analysis of key parameters and implications

Senger and Köhler (2015) Transitions to low carbon ship propulsion technologies including wind, simulated with an agent-based model using evolutionary approaches

Silva et al. (2015) Non-releasing biocidal coatings: A new eco-friendly strategy to prevent marine biofouling

Smith et al. (2015) Stranded assets and the shipping industry

Schaumeier et al. (2015) Investigating shipping behaviour in emission control areas - A visual approch to data analysis

Schaub et al. (2015) Fast-time simulation for prediction of fuel consumption and emissions during ship manoeuvres

Taljegård et al. (2015) Electrofuels - A possibility for shipping in a low carbon future

Taheri, Lazakis & Koch (2015) Catalogue data model based innovative database system for ship structural and machinery condition monitoring (MCM) data exchange protocol

Traut et al. (2015) Risk, rice and rising seas - Impacts of climate change on maritime transport

Traut et al. (2015) Emissions budgets for shipping in a 2°C global warming scenario and implications for operational efficiency

Trodden, Murphy & Pazouki (2015) Evaluation of emission factors on the estimation of NOx formation from a manoeuvering ship

Turkmen et al. (2015) A new energy saving twin rudder system - Gater rudder

Thiem, Gentner & Ackermann (2015) Methanol powered fuel cell systems for marine applications

Theotokatos et al. (2015) Computational investigation of a large dual fuel marine engine

Wang & Oterkus (2015) Failure analysis of marine lithium-ion batteries using peridynamics

Zhou & Wang (2015) A case ship study on practical design and installation of carbon absorption and solidification system


Featured publications

Smith et al. (2016) CO2 emissions from international shipping: Possible reduction targets and their associated pathways

Scott et al. (2016) The promise and limits of private standards to reduce Greenhouse Gas emissions from shipping

Prakash et al. (2016) Revealed preferences for energy efficiency in shipping markets

Rehmatulla & Calleya (2016) The implementation of technical energy efficiency measures in shipping submitted by IMarEST and RINA (MEPC 69/INF.8)

Schaumeier et al. (2015) Investigating shipping behaviour in emission control areas: A visual approach to data analysis

Rehmatulla & Smith (2015) CO2 emission targets for shipping

Rehmatulla (2015) Assessing the implementation of technical energy efficiency measures in shipping

Parker et al. (2015) Understanding the Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator: An empirical analysis of ships from the Royal Belgian Shipowners Association

Stulgis et al. (2014) Hidden treasure: Financial models for retrofits

Rojon & Smith (2014) On the attitudes and opportunities of fuel consumption monitoring and measurement within the shipping industry

Smith et al. (2014) Third IMO GHG Study 2014 - Final Report

Smith et al. (2014) Low Carbon Shipping - A Systems Approach Executive Summary

Smith et al. (2014) Low Carbon Shipping - A Systems Approach - Full report

Bows-Larkin et al. (2014) High seas, High Stakes

High Seas (2013) A new ship on the horizon?

Smith et al. (2013) Assessment of shipping’s efficiency using satellite AIS data 

Rehmatulla (2012) Barriers to uptake of operational measures


SCC Conference 2014

Bola (2014) The potential for sustainable sea transport: A case study of Southern Lomiaviti

Buckingham (2014) Mapping the hybrid solution space

Deligiannis (2014) Ship performance indicator

Fenton (2014) The role of port cities and networks: Reflections on the World Port Climate Initiative

Hosseinloo et al. (2014) Bridging the shipping gap: 2 degrees pathways and carbon pricing

Kotrikla et al. (2014) Air pollutant emissions at Aegean island port

Newell et al. (2014) Turning the tide: the need for sustainable sea transport in the Pacific

Osses & Bucknall (2014) A marine engineering plant model to evaluate the efficiency and CO2 emissions from crude oil carriers

Raucci et al. (2014) A framework to evaluate hydrogen as a fuel in international shipping

Sidhu et al. (2014) Towards Zero Emission Fishing


LCS conference 2013

Attah & Bucknall (2013) Energy use onboard LNG ships

Amosu et al. (2013) Experimental Investigation on the Operating Status of an Articulated Barge

Banks et al. (2013) Understanding ship operating profiles with an aim to improve energy efficient ship operations

Baldi et al. (2013) The influence of propulsion system design on the carbon footprint of different marine fuels

Bichou (2013) Achieving environmental security in shipping and ports

Bows-Larkin (2013) Pathways to low-carbon international transport: A comparison of shipping and aviation

Buckingham (2013) Hybrid drives for energy efficiency

Demirel et al. (2013) On the importance of antifouling coatings regarding ship resistance and powering

Doudnikoff & Lacoste (2013) Effect of a speed differentiation of containerships in response to regional environmental policies 

de la Fuente & Greig (2013) Making shipping greener: ORC modelling under realistic operative conditions

Grahn et al. (2013) Cost-effective choices of marine fuels under stringent CO2 targets

Haji et al. (2013) Estimating the global container shipping network using data and models

Jin & Vassalos (2013) Energy modeling of large 2-stroke marine diesel engine using CFD

Khorasanchi et al. (2013) What to expect from the hydrodynamic energy saving devices

Landamore & Dinwoodie (2013) What is the likely future demand for shipping?

Lu et al. (2013) Voyage optimisation: Prediction of ship specific fuel consumption for energy efficient shipping

Murphy et al. (2013) Modelling ship emission factors and emission indices

Smith et al. (2013) Analysis techniques for evaluating the fuel savings associated with wind assistance

Osses & Bucknall (2013) On the impact of marine engineering efficiency with de-rated engines: A study using VLCCs

Parker (2013) Matching on the tanker market

Raucci et al. (2013) Evaluating scenarios for alternative fuels in international shipping

Rehmatulla et al. (2013) Implementation barriers to low carbon shipping

Smith et al. (2013) What is a fair measurement and apportionment scheme?

Theotokatos & Livanos (2013) Modern concepts of ferries propulsion plant for reducing fuel consumption cost and CO2 Emissions

Walsh et al. (2013) A comparison of alternative decarbonisation scenarios for UK shipping

Traut et al. (2013) Monitoring shipping emissions via AIS data? Certainly

Whitelegg & Bucknall (2013) Electrical propulsion in the low carbon economy

Zis et al. (2013) An economic assessment of the feasibility of speed reduction schemes near ports


LCS conference 2012

Aldous & Smith (2012) Speed optimisation for Liquefied Natural Gas carriers: A techno-economic model

Azqueta et al. (2012) Energy balance of a Fuel Cell System for on board auxiliary power generation

Badoe et al. (2012) Numerical propeller rudder interaction studies to assist fuel efficient shipping

Banks et al. (2012) Seafarers’ current awareness, knowledge, motivation and ideas towards low carbon – energy efficient operations

Buckingham (2012) Naval economy and flexibility

Dinwoodie et al. (2012) Oil tanker flows involving the UK to 2050: A Delphi survey

Gilbert et al. (2012) Mutiny on the High Seas: exploring step-change technological mitigation in the shipping sector

He et al. (2012) Modelling and control of fuel cell and micro gas turbine hybrid power system for ship application

Howett et al. (2012) Lowering carbon emissions in shipping through improved hullform design for realistic operating conditions

Kohler & Senger (2012) An agent-based model of transitions to sustainability in deep sea shipping

Landamore & Dinwoodie (2012) What is the future demand for shipping?

Mander et al. (2012) A systems perspective on decarbonising the UK energy system – the impacts on shipping CO2 emissions

Mangan et al. (2012) The relationship between transport logistics, future ship design and whole system efficiency

McKinnon (2012) An Assessment of the contribution of shippers to the decarbonisation of deep-sea container supply chains

Rehmatulla & Smith (2012) Implementation barriers to low carbon shipping

Rigot-Muller et al. (2012) Mapping UK international seaborne trade and traffic

Rigot-Muller et al. (2012) Assessing emissions of UK international maritime traffic

Schwientek & Jahn (2012) The contribution of terminals to reduce the carbon footprint of maritime transportation

Sciberas et al. (2012) Auxiliary drives for emissions reduction

Smith & O'Keefe (2012) What is an appropriate measurement and apportionment strategy for international shipping?

Stott (2012) New panamax and its implications for ship design and efficiency

Tian et al. (2012) A holistic ship model for variable speed generation system on a RoRo vessel

Traut et al. (2012) Low C for the High Seas flettner rotor power contribution on a route Brazil to UK

Trodden & Woodward (2012) Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by propeller design for ship-in-service conditions

Walsh et al. (2012) A new method for estimating national-scale CO2 from shipping: preliminary results from a UK study

Yu et al. (2012) Optimising the operation of a large two-stroke marine engine for slow steaming


LCS conference 2011

Anderson et al. (2011) Quantifying the climate challenge for shipping: From incremental to step change mitigation

Antunes (2011) Tools for the control of ship emissions and energy and the new IMO regulations

Armstrong (2011) Vessel optimisation for low carbon shipping

Banks et al. (2011) An approach to education and training of seafarers in low carbon-energy efficiency operations

Bows et al. (2011) Accounting for and influencing shipping emissions at a sub-global level

Calleya et al. (2011) Assessing the carbon dioxide emission reduction potential of a natural gas container carrier

Chowdhury & Dinwoodie (2011) The potential impact of a levy on bunker fuels on dry bulk spot freight rates

Clelland et al. (2011) Fuel cells for marine applications

Cui et al. (2011) Self-learning based ship onboard decision support system

Dedes et al. (2011) Possible power train concepts for nuclear powered merchant ships

Hatharia et al. (2011) Preliminary study of medium-speed monohull passenger ferries

Khoo & Olcer (2011) Life-cycle impact analysis of green ship design/operation

Knott & Buckingham (2011) Exploring options to reduce fuel consumption

Landamore (2011) Sustainable shipping - A way forward? Developing economic imperatives in an international market

Li & Zhao (2011) An innovative hullform desing technique for low carbon shipping

Lloyd et al. (2011) Improved container trans-shipment utilising low carbon feeder ships

Mangan et al. (2011) Logistics and low carbon shipping

Marzi et al. (2011) Energy efficiency targets

Marzi & Gatchell (2011) Low drag for low carbon shipping targets

McKinnon & Woolford (2011) The effects of port-centric logistics on the carbon intensity of the maritime supply chain: A preliminary review

Mermiris et al. (2011) Dynamic energy modelling - A new approach to energy efficiency and cost effectiveness in shipping operations

Ong & Olcer (2011) A feasibility model for marine engines using alternative fuels with the emphasis on cost/earning and emission figures

Reynolds (2011) The history and status of GHG emissions control in international shipping

Seo et al. (2011) Improvement of energy efficiency with 'inclined keel' hull concept

Shao & Zhou (2011) Development of a dynamic programming method for low fuel consumption and low carbon emission from shipping

Smith et al. (2011) Initial estimates on shipping's cost impacts and emissions for a range of policy options - A prototype model

Smith et al. (2011) On the speed of ships

Surplus (2011) B9 ships: Sail and virtual bio-methane powered coastal vessels

Taylor (2011) Low carbon shipping - An operator's perspective

Traut et al. (2011) Towards very low carbon shipping

Varelas & Archontaki (2011) Intelligence voyage planning for emission lowering

Walsh & Bows (2011) Incorporating lifecycle elements into the energy efficiency design index

Xie et al (2011) A study of hull form improvement for a fishing trawler

Zhou & Clelland (2011) Development of a combined cycle of solid oxide fuel cell and micro gas turbine for marine power systems

Zhu & Erikstad (2011) Performance indicators in benchmarking of maritime logistics chains


Peer reviewed papers

Bows-Larkin, A. (2014) All adrift: aviation, shipping, and climate change policy - Climate Policy

Bows-Larkin, A. (2015) Shipping charts a high carbon course - Carbon Management 2015

Calleya, J. (2015) Ship impact model for technical assessment and selection of Carbon dioxide Reducing Technologies (CRTs)

Smith, T. (2012) Technical energy efficiency, its interaction with optimal operating speeds and the implications for the management of shiping’s carbon emissions, Carbon Management, 3 (6), 589 - 600

Agnolucci, Smith, & Rehmatulla (2014) Energy efficiency and time charter rates: Energy efficiency savings recovered by shipowners in the Panamax market, Transportation Research Part A, 66, 173 - 184

Gilbert & Bows (2012) Exploring the scope for complimentary sub-global policy to mitigate CO2 from shipping, Energy Policy, 50, 613-622.

Gilbert (2015) Technologies for the high seas: meeting the climate challenge - Carbon Management 

Walsh & Bows (2012) Size matters: exploring the importance of vessel characteristics to inform estimates of shipping emissions, Applied Energy, 98, 128-137.

Gilbert (2013) From reductionism to systems thinking: how the shipping sector can address sulphur regulation and tackle climate change, Marine Policy, 43, 376-378.

Traut et al. (2013), Propulsive power contribution of a kite and a Flettner rotor on selected shipping routes, Applied Energy, 113, 362-372.

Anderson & Bows (2012) Executing a Scharnow turn: reconciling shipping emissions with international commitments on climate change, Carbon Management, 3, 6, 615-628.

Mander et al. (2012) Decarbonising the UK energy system and the implications for UK shipping, Carbon Management, 3, 6, 601-614.

Bows & Smith (2012) The (low-carbon) shipping forecast: opportunities on the high seas, Carbon Management, 3 (6), 525 - 528

Rehmatulla & Smith (2015) Barriers to energy efficiency in shipping: A triangulated approach to investigate the principal agent problem, Energy Policy, 84, 44-57.


Papers submitted to other conferences

Lazarou (2019) Identifying the effect of transshipment hubs on international trade

Aldous et al (2013) Noon Report Data Uncertainty

Rehmatulla, N. (2011) Applying systems thinking approach for qualitative analysis of GHG emissions regulations in shipping, conference paper from International Conference on Marine and Maritime Affairs

Smith, T. et al. (2010) Low Carbon Shipping - A Systems Approach, conference paper from RINA

Calleya, J. et al. (2012) Ship design and evaluation for a GHG constrained future, conference paper from The Environmentally Friendly Ship conference, 28 - 29 February 2012, London, UK

Bows & Gilbert (2011) Emission apportionment and exploring alternative national-based policy measures aimed to reduce emissions from the shipping sector, presented at European Transport Conference, Glasgow, June 2011.

Traut (2012) Quantifying Shipping Emissions, presented at The 3rd international conference on Transport, Atmosphere and Climate (TAC), Prien Am Chiemsee, Germany, June 2012.

Traut (2013) Out of thin air: the potential wind power contribution to international shipping, presented at 4th Marine Technology Postgraduate Conference, London, June 2013.

Mander et al. (2013) Plotting a course to 2050 and beyond: how to meet energy demand within the shipping sector, Royal Geographical Society Conference, London, Aug 2013.

Bows-Larkin et al. (2013) Shipping visions on the horizon, Tyndall Centre Radical Emissions Reduction Conference, London, Dec 2013.

Walsh & Bows (2011) The Importance of Product Distinction in Lifecycle and Product Chain Analyses, presentation at Irish Transport Research Network, Aug 2011

Walsh & Bows (2011) Assessing emission baselines for overseas freight arriving in the UK, presentation at Royal Geographical Society Annual Conference, London, Sept 2011.

Walsh & Bows (2012) Implications of recent trade patterns on future UK shipping emissions. Britain and the Sea. Plymouth, Sept 2012.

Bows (2012) Executing a Scharnow turn: reconciling shipping emissions with international commitments on climate change, Invited seminar to CICERO in Oslo, Norway Dec 2012.

Bows (2013) The importance of being Urgent: aviation, shipping and the mitigation debate, European Transport Conference, Frankfurt, Germany, Oct 2013.